Progress

Tests S4015-S4021: Increased energy recovery using a new ERC

There was less energy recovery using Pulsotron-4 than using Pulsotron-3, so several tests were performed to fix that using configuration-2, so we improved in one test from 14.5% to 70%. That solution will be added to several others to help to generate more energy than used.

In the graph can be seen the old coil in blue and the new one that is grey. The other two plotlines correspond to other sensors:

Test S4015

We added some captures made during the tests:

S4018 captured using a high resolution camera
S4018 high speed capture

Fortunately, only a launcher was broken during tests that were replaced immediately

Performed tests S4013 and 4014: soul in pain escapes from Pulsotron

It was made new tests using Configuration-2 but a low magnetic field was measured.

It was processed videos and data generated in the last test campaign revealing an intriguing capture that seems to be a soul in pain. Unfortunately, the flames revealed that plastics used in sealing burns due to tests, so it must be replaced by more harder isolation material

S4011 test

 

Tests S4004-40012 performed, and magnetic sensor damaged again

During the last test campaigns performed from 25 October 2020 until 7 of November, 9 tests were performed, and as a result, 1.6-2.57 megateslas was reached, or perhaps higher, but unfortunately our star oscilloscope of 4 gigahertz is out for calibration, but in the last test only 287 kiloteslas was obtained.

Test S4008

Then the magnetic sensor was removed so then an inspection revealed new damaged parts, then Pulsotron has dismantled again for inspection to see some plasma leakages discovered using the new high-speed cameras. and as a result, several parts must be changed.

As a result of the autopsy of the magnetic sensor, the high strength nylon custom case was broken so plasma entered into and severy burned the flex PCB board. In the following photo in the upper right corner can be observed the crack and the path used by the plasma to enter trough the PCB board

Mag-5.4 sensor burned

After the dismantling of the reactor, we must wait for spare parts to repair it. Also, a new configuration could be tested, but after repeat the last test using a new sensor that is now being building

Pulsotron-4 configuration-2

After the first three tests, several parts of the fusion reactor were broken, so the parts are replaced and a general refurbishment was made, including new ERC, new magnetic sensor-5, and large shield to stop alpha particles and X rays to allow to make tests using thermonuclear fuel.

The new Pulsotron-4C2 is active and full operative now. Here is an image of its first test with new parts:

S4004 test

Pulsotron-4 Magnetic field record without fusion

At this test campaign, it was tested the new magnetic sensor MAG5 that is designed to measure magnetic fields up to 4 gigahertz and withstand ten times larger magnetic fields than the old MAG4 sensor.

As a result in the test 4002 the magnetic field was so large that saturated oscilloscope channels corresponding for the two more close sensors, giving 3.92 Megateslas at the third

At test 4003 it was measured 2.67Megateslas, but the magnetic sensor was broken. Also, several isolation parts of the Pulsotron was broken and must be replaced.
As a conclusion, the performance of Pulsotron-4 generates 5.3 times larger magnetic fields than Pulsotron-3
In order to measure the Time of Flight (TOF) and plasma ball expansion, it was installed three oscilloscope probes connected to three dipole sensors installed sequentially, that measure the electric resistivity of the passing plasma through the dipoles.
No electric recovery test was performed.
S4002 TOF test

1.2 Megaamps pulses recovered from plasma

In the last tests, it was measured the charging current in the capacitor knowing the capacitance and the voltage change measured at capacitor terminals. The current is extracted from plasma affected by the ejected particles produced during fusion

The recovered energy beats new record. 1.2MA flowing towards the energy recovery capacitors was measured. The pulse is short, 23 microseconds only, then the capacitor is discharged at 200 kiloamps

Measured current

Also, we have to inform that Pulsotron-4 entering in service is delayed as several components must be replaced, so tests are performed using the damaged Pulsotron-3 reactor. It is expected that the reactor can definitely break down at any moment

Recovered 88.13% of the injected energy in Pulsotron-3

At test S3070 we used the ERC-08 Electric Recovery Coils and 88.13% of the net energy injected in the target was recovered. But the main scientist suffered an electric shock from the recovery capacitors,  then to increase the energy recovered, new security systems must be installed.

Test S3070 beating energy recovering record

At the test S3071 the coils were separated from target to reduce damage from reaction but the energy recovered decreased to half, that is still much higher than the last test campaign

We are happy because recovery 200% allows us to begin to sell commercial reactors.

In next tests, the recovered energy was 26.89% (test S3072), 22.5% (T3073) and 17.74% (T3074), but in last two tests the magnetic field was maintained during a long time at 7.36 and 4.91 Megateslas. It is due to fusion reactions generates an intense magnetic field. It is clear that the magnetic field is an important parameter not only before but also during and after fusion is performed.

In the last test the generated energy and magnetic field could go down due the ERC structure was blown away, so it will be difficult to repeat tests, especially the setup of the S3070 in the Pulsotron-3 reactor.

As can be seen in the graph below the electric generation sufered a step increase from <5% to over 20% after the introduction of the new ERCs that will be used in the next Fusion Reactor

Recovered energy in Pulsotron-3

 

Less energy recovered with new setup

In test 3068 we improved the connections between the capacitors to reduce its inductance, but as result the energy recovered falls to 14.29% and the magnetic field was 190 kiloteslas

Test S3071

Then we increased the capacitor bank a 50% to increase the energy recovered and as result in the test S3069 it was recovered 16.7% that is better but far from our record value 22.6%

Test S3069