Progress

Several blasts puts Pulsotron-3 out of order

In the 3rd test campaign, it was made two tests, with great success as it was measured the storage of magnetic energy in the target to allow use it to compress the target to make fusion.

As can be seen in the attached plot in the yellow line it was measured the capacitor bank voltage drop. It can be seen how its discharge 1/2 of the voltage (about a 75% of the energy) in the target before it begins to emit energy es can be seen in the other channels that represents the light acquired by an array of photodiodes pointing using accurate optics to the center of the target and also two longer distances. it can be seen how the plasma ball increasing starting about 1 microsecond after the beginning of the discharge

Test number 3004

It was similar to the results obtained in the following 3005 test. Both tests were done with the help of new High Voltage probes.

Also, a better electromagnetic design reduced a lot of electrode erosion.

The new Pulsotron actually generates electromagnetic waves of up to 13 kiloteslas, unfortunately, the waves evaporate insulation parts of the Pulsotron-3, so during the charging of the capacitor bank during the test number 3006, several blasts in three different parts so we had to turn it off. Thanks to several security systems, no one was injured. The main power supply, the measurement systems, and the control system were not affected because we designed a High Voltage unit resistant to short circuits.

In the attached images it was seen in the previous test how a cloud of fire is generated that burns eroded plastics of the internal parts.

Also, it was obtained from a laboratory camera an image of one of the internal blast

Actually the team is working hard to make Pulsotron-3 in service as fast as possible. This problem and the problems we had before allows us to learn and improve a lot the z-pinch technology use to build a working  electric generator as fast as possible

 

 

 

Fire in the Hole! – Pulsotron second test campaign

Targets 3001-3003 were tested. The main idea is to check if the plasma ball is contained inside the reaction chamber enough time to make ignition. Also, it was checked two sensors.

It was built carefully an array of photodiodes and electrical power of them carefully inserted in optical parts aligned with the plasma ball to measure accurately the expansion of the plasma ball. The whole system was mounted inside a small structure made in a 3-d injection machine. To maintain that instrument close to the plasma ball a structure was mounted, we name it  “diagnostic tower”. Unfortunately, in the first shot, the 3-d injection enclosure was destroyed and blown away in less than 50 microseconds, as can be seen in the high-speed video captures:

But it was a disaster as we needed the plasma ball expansion data, so we had to improvise, so we used a similar instrument made for Pulsotron-2, fortunately, its batteries still worked, then a new diagnostic tower was made in a hurry cutting extruded aluminum profiles. In the shot 3002, the old sensors were exposed to a lot higher light levels than the Pulsotron-2, so they were saturated, so it was increased the scope scale and tested again in test 3003 that was successful.

After the tests several megabytes of sensor data are now being processing

Miranda reactor has a new borosilicate body

A new borosilicate body arrived at the laboratory. It was built in a Sevilla specialized company. Actually we are building coils to be attached to the new reactor body. The coils will be connected to the main capacitor bank using some of the most powerful Silicon Carbide SCRs built especially for us in a Chinese company

Pulsotron-3 Initial Test

It was tested charging and discharging, measured the capacitance.

Also, it was made an unloaded target shot that was performed at 100% of the capacitor bank capacity.

The image resolution is low due it was taken using a high-speed camera. It can be seen the detonation of the reactor after the compression. In the early tests of the Pulsotron-1A and 1B Z-pinch machines, some confinement chamber survived to the discharge and could be reused, but it was impossible after overcoming 60 gigapascal pressure.

In the test it was checked some safety systems and also it was acquired the shot performance but the time scale must be modified next time. A lot of jobs must be done before making a loaded test as install radiation sensors, another acquisition system to have enough channels. Also, it will be needed to check the simulations.

Some scientists pointed out the possibility that the discharge could be performed in air, so we usually install optical and electromagnetic sensors that measure the plasma ball dimensions during the discharge. These sensors must be installed in the new machine.

A specific energy sensor is designing now to allow measure the radiated energy including alpha, photons from infrared to ultraviolet and low energy X rays

 

Pulsotron-3 load test and Miranda body built by Zaragoza university

It was finished the structure of Pulsotron-3. It was connected to the HV controller. Also, it was done load test at 20% and discharge test.
Remote measurement system OK also
It must be installed the remote firing system and the target fixture
Miranda reactor is at 32%. We have one of the capacitor banks and the reactor body was built at Zaragoza Spanish University. They needed 2 months and 6 failed reactor bodies to build the final body. We needed to simulate 970000 reactors to decide what was the best of them to be built. It is a magnetic confinement reactor that uses extremely very high density and temperature plasma. Miranda reactor is a totally new reactor with no tokamak shape that allows confining 750keV plasma and also 3.3MeV alpha particles

 

Another reactor family added to the collection

There is a collection of reactors that could generate ignition in different configurations

The last one is designed to try confination of 100% of the alpha particles to make a more useful and compact reactor without external energy harvesting coils, but a lot of new simulations will be done to see if it is possible. This is the result of simulation of the new SIX reactor

 

Simulated 5120 tokamaks configurations using aneutronic fusion

A 63 times improvement is reached from an initial configuration

The achievement was done using the step solver to go through 5200 simulations

In the following table appears the result of the simulations, where the X-axis is the simulation number and the Y-axis is the effective reactor area (in square meters):

In the following figure can be seen one of the 5200 simulations with 196 particles flowing inside the tokamak:

The real effective area must be much lower as it has seen in one of the simulations due the real plasma occupancy inside the torus is far to be  uniform as can be seen in the following figure:

Simulation of Tokamak devices

A solver is used over a simulator to simulate Tokamak devices to look for the possibility to use them in aneutronic fusions in the combustion chamber of the Miranda reactors.
In order to do that a giant magnetic field must be used to confine 550keV particles.
In order to simulate thousand configurations, it is used 4 threads over C++ with improvements like using elliptic integrals to increase the simulation speed
The reactor cross-section divided by collision probability is too high so a lot of simulations must be run to increase the performance.
It is improved the Aeff that is the averaged reactor section by using the “23 fellow system”, which involved to generate vectors of parameters with a variation between them using genetic algorithm but when having more than 23 vectors the worst of them is erased, then the percentage of variation is reduced every time a new vector is obtained as a variation of the 23 fellows.
After 10 kilosimulations of different Tokamaks structures with 4 to 12 toroidal coils are been simulated. Thanks to the 23 fellow system the performance is increased in very few simulations as can be seen in the yield table using logarithmic scales: